Frequently asked questions

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How much to apply in my experiment?

This depends on your experimental setup and question.
Fast early colonization requires high inoculation strength (many "primary infections" needed), later the system becomes "saturated" (the symbiosis and the fungus propagate, "secondary infections").
You can get mycorrhization with very low amounts of inoculum, if you wait long enough. If you need fast AM establishment (= by high rate of primary infections) this requires high inoculation pressure.
So, it depends – there is no "one answer". Also depends on your substrate, temperature, plant, etc. Inoculation in a planting hole provides higher initial concentrations than a homogenous mixture in the substrate providing more homogenous symbiosis establishment, etc. In a 'normal' soil you may often have 10-80 AMF spores per milliliter, as an indication, whereas some agricultural soils may be (almost) AMF depleted.
Just as an indication (be aware that differences in growth temperature, substrate, light, etc., can and will make a difference, so please be aware that your conditions have strong impact on such values):
With lettuce as host in calcined attapulgite clay in 50 ml small pots assays, after 5 weeks we roughly get the following colonization rates:
10 spores/ml 15% colonization
20 spores/ml 30% colonization
40 spores/ml 50-60% colonization
Note, that from >50% the reaction is not linear any more, to the inoculation strength, as it starts to get into “saturation”.
If you sample 1 week later, you may have 10-20 % more colonization (again, depends on temperature, etc.), another week later everything may already be in “saturation”.

If you setup an experiment you should be aware that the colonization is a dynamic process, and an end-point estimation of colonization is not telling you what happened the weeks before.
Thus, many people use high concentrations for +/- AM comparison experiments to have a fast start and by just going into the “saturation” (= maximum you can get).
You should check your conditions, dependent on your question.
If you need to see differences dependent on inoculations strength, you need to calibrate your system first to be sure you have differences at a certain time point.

What is the minimal order size?

We do not accept orders smaller than the units in the products list, except specific requests for samples. Small orders cause considerable shipping and handling costs.

Why you send your products in plastic bottles, bags or pouches?

The products must be protected and we have no other option than using plastic (coatings) for a reasonable packing. The materials chosen are as eco-friendly as possible.

Can I publish details regarding the used fungi?

Yes, we will provide you with data regarding origin, classification, and other issues, as far as known. Most of these data will be presented at this web-site.

Can I get lyophilized AM fungi?

No. We have tested lyophilized and deep temperature vacuum dried spores, with very mixed and often not very positive results. We do not offer such material.

Help or customized services?

We may offer a set of customized services for your needs. Please also inquire for B2B and OEM mycorrhizal fungi containing product development.
We have partners supplying agricultural markets, also in large scales.